It is located in northwest Florida, ten miles from the Alabama State Line on its panhandle. Pensacola is rich in historical, military aviation and natural attractions, each of Florida signs its day, sand, seafood and water.
Although St. Augustine, located on the eastern or Atlantic coast of Florida, is considered the oldest city in the United States and was rooted after Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles sailed and established a colony, Pensacola, on the western side of the state or on the Gulf of Mexico. . the title if your own arrangement was durable.
Six years earlier, in August 1559, the Spanish explorer Tristan de Luna named his anchor in a local tribe called "Panzacola" as "long-haired people," with the intention of executing Luis de Velasco, a Spanish decree establishing a settlement in the Gulf.
Well-equipped and prepared, equipped with 11 ships, and brought in 1,500 prospective colonists, including African slaves and Mexican Indians. History, however, was forced to carry the wrong fork on the road when a hurricane on September 19 destroyed eight de Luna ships.
However, one of them sent efforts to rescue the expedition to Veracruz, Mexico, to call for aid, leaving the immigrants to survive on the coast and survive by flooding the supplies they carried. However, ships arriving a year later, instead of resupplying the colonists, only rescued the survivors: they were taken to Havana, and by the spring of 1551 they had barely left the military outpost. By August, a handful of soldiers had left the new land and returned to Mexico, finding the settlement too dangerous.
Although unknown at the time, it claimed fame as the oldest continuous American city you could never do.
In fact, almost 150 years, in 1698, when foreign forces try to get their feet again – in this case, Spain has created a more successful garrison in what is today Pensacola, and for that purpose, a colonial city.
It has happened so often throughout history that land, once claimed, has become a prize sought by others, often by military means, and Pensacola was no exception. The Spaniards initially surrendered the French in May 1719, but their ownership barely ended. France, Spain, Britain and Spain take possession again in the next century, until the latter finally surrenders Florida to the United States in 1821. As the Confederacy also "took over the residence", Pensacolat is considered a "Five Flag City". . "
Much of its nearly 500-year history is preserved and experienced in the Pensacola Historic Quarter, managed by the UWF Historic Trust, an organization sponsored by the University of West Florida and a national registry of 27 sites.
Admission is only for one week, including guided tours and visitor entry, and tickets can be purchased at Tivoli High House.
The important structures are many. For example, Seville Square is the center of the old settlement and served as one end of the British route parade and ends with its twin Plaza Ferdinand VII. General Andrew Jackson adopted the West Florida area from Spain in 1821 and raised the American flag for the first time.
A small, preserved part of Fort George, symbolized by the British Revolution in the Battle of Pensacola during the American Revolution, 1763-181.
There are plenty of original houses, including Julee Panton House, 1805 Lavalle House, 1871 Dorr House, and 1890 Lear-Rocheblave House.
Located on Seville Square and built by slaves in 1824, the Old Christ Church is the oldest of its kind in the state and still occupies its original location.
There are many museums: the T. T. Wentworth, Jr., Florida State Museum, built in 1908 and originally served by the Town Hall, the Pensacola Children's Museum, the Pensacola Multicultural Center for Sounds, and the Museum of Commerce.
Although not technically part of the Pensacola Historic District, the Pensacola Grand Hotel is located on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad passenger areas, built in 1912 to replace the original 1882 L&N Union Station that served Pensacola for 58 years. It is currently in the National Register of Historic Places.
Renovated in its original splendor and transformed into a 15-story glass tower, the hotel retains much of the early décor, including French clay tile roofs and ceramic mosaic tile floors, and is decorated with period pieces such as solid materials. , dripped bronze light and antique furniture.
The 1912 restaurant is located on the ground floor, with Biva entrance doors from London, cast bronze French-style chandelier from Philadelphia, 1885 rounded glass from a Victorian hotel in Scranton, and combed-style barbecue work in Lloyd's of London.
Pensacola Naval Air Station:
The Pensacola Naval Air Station has a number of significant attractions that are accessible through the visitor's gate and require identification, such as a permit, to enter.
Built in 1825, it was located in the Navy's courtyard and began as a flight training station at the outbreak of World War I, with nine officers, 23 mechanics, eight aircraft and ten coastal tents. the first of its kind.
As a result of World War II, it expanded dramatically and trained 1,100 cadets per month, who combined to fly about two million hours. Following the transfer of the Naval Air Baccalaureate Headquarters from Corpus Christi, Texas to Pensacola, clean jet airplanes were included in the curriculum. Today, 12,000 active military personnel, 9,000 of whom receive flight training, are assigned to the station.
The world-famous National Maritime Aviation Museum, also located here, is the largest and one of Florida's most visited attractions. It did not begin as a tourist attraction, but rather in order to include naval aviation history in the cadet curriculum, for which there was neither sufficient time nor funding for the traditional book study method.
Originally housed in a 8,500-square-foot timber-framed building since World War II, the facility has become the site for the selection, collection, preservation, and exhibition of aircraft and objects that represent the development and heritage of the service industry. It opened its doors on June 8, 1963.
The ever expanding collection of 700 aircraft is on display in the country's 11 official naval museums, but some 150 respectfully restored museums continue to be exhibited here, with 37 outdoor hectares and 350,000 square feet of indoor indoor facilities. the place is done. Entrance is free.
Divided into the south wing, the west wing, the second floor mezzanine, and the standalone Hangar Bay One, it tracks the evolution of naval aviation and aircraft from inception to recent Middle East conflicts.
For example, the A-1 Triad is named because it operates in three ranges of air (wings), water (floats) and earth (wheels). Nieuport 28, during World War I, facilitated aircraft carrier experiments, while Navy-Curtiss NC-4 mammoth was the first to cross the Atlantic from Trepassey in Newfoundland to the Azores on the doorstep of the Golden Age exhibit. . Islands near Portugal.
During the Cold War, speed jet fighters are represented by types such as the McDonnell F2H-4 Banshee, the North American FJ-2 Fury and the Russian MiG-15.
At the center of the West Wing is a replica of the "USS Cabot" island and its deck, which is largely in the II. It is surrounded by a vast collection of WWII aircraft, including the Grumman F4F-3, the Vought-Sikorsky FG-1D Corsair. and General Motors (Grumman) TBM Avenger.
Many of the museum's mezzanine exhibitions, which face the south and west wings themselves, and even reach the ground steps of the aircraft, may not be more contrasting with each other than those designed for easy flight in the aerial world. and space exploration.
The first balloon balloon successfully flown by the Montgolfier Brothers in 1783 was a large, verifiable balloon that lifted itself according to the buoyancy principle, but fitted with propulsion engines, rudder and elevator. for governance (governance). ) and longitudinal (pitch) axis control. Suspended gondolas accommodated staff and passengers. Rigid types have internal frames that are not required by non-rigid frames, such as blimp.
In the Navy L-8 and World War II, K-47 airship thoughts or control cars appear. The latter, on May 19, 1943, had an internal volume of 425,000 cubic centimeters shipped at Moffett Field, California.
In the second case, or in space exploration, a copy of the Mercury Freedom 7 space capsule, the original of which was launched at 116.5 nautical miles and was an air / space carrier for 14.8 minutes, represents Naval Aviation's contribution to the space program, as Naval Aviator Alan B. Shepard became the first American to enter the empire on May 5, 1961.
The display also includes the original Skylab II Command Module, which orbited the Skylab space station between May and June 1973 for 28 days. It set numerous records operated by a three-member full Navy crew, including the longest spaceflight, the longest distance traveled, and the largest crowd docked in space.
Both the mezzanine and the top floor feature the 75-foot, 10,000-square-foot Blue Angels Atrium, which connects the south and west wings and contains four Douglas A-4 Skyhawks with a dive diamond painted in the dark of the acrobatic team. blue color.
Hangar Bay One has 55,000 square feet of exhibition space with planes such as the Sikorsky VH-3 Sea King, which carried Nixon and Ford presidents in the 1970s; the Douglas R4D-5L Skytrain, which first became the Antarctic South Pole in 1956; and the Grumman F-14D Tomcat, the supersonic swing-wing fighter that logged its final combat mission.
Visitor services include additional tours, a large laser screen showing daily movies, two gift shops and the Cubi Bar Café.
Practical flights from the famous Blue Angels flight demonstration team can be viewed at the Museum Flight Line, located to the north of the museum itself.
Another historic attraction at Naval Air Station is the Pensacola Lighthouse.
Because of the strategic importance of Pensacola Harbor, in March 1823, Congress set aside $ 6,000 to build a lighthouse, choosing a suitable location in June, but temporarily replacing a floating alternative, the "Aurora Borealis", until construction was completed. Located at the mouth of the Mississippi River, just behind the western end of Santa Rosa Island.
The permanent structure, a 40-foot-wide white brick tower with ten whale oil lamps, each reinforced by a 14-inch reflector, was first illuminated on December 20 of the following year and allowed sailing ships to steer towards it. and then enter the harbor.
Although more useful than the replacement floating ship, by 1850 it began to uncover its deficiencies: trees on Santa Rosa Island prevented it and its light was too dim to serve as an effective navigation aid, urging the newly established lighthouse. The board should recommend an exchange program that rises at least 150 feet.
To answer his request, Congress set aside $ 25,000 in 1854 and two years later another $ 30,000. The new facility, half a mile west of the original building, was completed in 1858. Raised 159 meters from a base 30 feet in diameter and tapered to a top of 15 meters, it was first lit on New Year's Day in 1859 by Keeper Palmes. It offers the most effective lens, the premium Fresnel.
Listed in the National Register of Historic Places, the Pensacola Lighthouse offers insight into the life of mid-19th-century lighthouses, a 1890s conveyor house, the 1869 Richard C. Callaway Museum, and a museum shop. a quarter of the guards, and the 177-step lighthouse itself that can be climbed over to Pensacola Bay.
Another historically important sight in Pensacola Naval Air Station is Fort Barrancas.
"Fort Barrancas, located on bluffs overlooking Pensacola Bay, was built to protect the United States from foreign invaders," according to the National Park Service. "Once considered vital to defense, Fort Barrancas today presents the evolution of military technology and American values."
Shortly after Spain handed over Florida to the United States, the United States Navy selected Pensacola Bay as the Gulf Navy's main yard, and at the same time sent Army Army officers to survey the coast to build fortifications the navy yard.
It was built over the ruins of a Spanish fortress in 1798, known as San Carlos de Barrancas. And "barrancas" was the Spanish word for "bluffs" – the third such fortress in the bay. The existing 1797 Batteria de San Antonio was retained and modified.
Between March 21 and September 21, significant armament was built in the form of slaves working between sunrise and sunset, including ten 24-pound cannons.
Although built as a defensive structure, it only fought during the Civil War.
Due to new developments in cannon and naval warships, the United States government began evaluating proposals for new coastal defense in 1885 and After World War I, the curtain closed, and in 1947 it was declared a surplus.
From the Visitor Center, there is a trail leading to the actual dragon-shaped fortress, whose outstanding features include a piece and a pointed carp, a ditch, a lift bridge, a sally harbor, a guard room, an open parade and a water accumulator. The latter two were connected by tunnels. The cannonballs fired from the water accumulator were designed to ricoxify from the bay and collide with their water pipes.
The fort's four-foot, 20-foot-high wall, made up of six million bricks, has an arch and valuable ceiling.
The nearby Advanced Redoubt, built between 1845 and 1870, protected the northern side of the peninsula, the Pensacola Navy.
Eight miles from downtown Pensacola and accessed by Interstate 110 South via Gulf Breeze, this land-connected bridge and highway is a narrow, sugary, sandy section of Santa Rosa Dam overlooking the emerald waters. Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, and offers ocean-related activities such as swimming, sunbathing, fishing, snorkeling, sailing and diving. Fiery red, chartreuse and purple sunsets regularly paint the sky.
There are many beach hotels such as Surf and Sand, Margaritaville Beach and Portofino Island Resort, as well as well-known names such as Hampton Inn, Hilton, Holiday Inn, SpringHill Suites and Days Inn. Florida Indicative Seafood restaurants offer indoor and outdoor seating with water views including Hemingway's Island Grill, Flounder's Chowder House, Grand Marlin, Shaggy's Pensacola Beach and Peg Leg Pete's.
The Pensacola Bay pier, which is 1441 meters into the water, can be caught with bluefish, pompano, redfish, Spanish mackerel and spotted sea trout. Flounder cannot be excluded.
The self-guided footprints of the Sand Eco Tour, marked with informative signs, provide an opportunity to explore local plant and animal life, including dolphins, sharks, turtles, birds, fish and flowers. Each one explains a different ecological topic.
Pensacola Beach is part of the Gulf Coast National Coast, 160 miles from Fort Walton Beach in Florida to Cat Island in Mississippi, and includes dam islands, marine forests, bays, marine habitats and historic fortresses. The center of the park, which offers orientation films and exhibitions from the Live Naval Oaks area, is located in Gulf Breeze, an island between the mainland and Pensacola Beach.
The Gulf of Mexico national coastline retains pockets of American history and culture and embeds the visitor in Florida's flora and fauna. In the cavern formed by water and sky, for example, the surface of dolphins, the starfish floats, and pelicans and seagulls allow the breeze to overlap them in the panorama.
One of the historic preserves of the Gulf National Coast, Fort Fortken, located at the western end of Santa Rosa Island, is directly at the entrance to Pensacola Bay harbor, Fort Barrancas. He was named Brigadier General Andrew Pickens, a patriot who fought especially in South Carolina during the Revolutionary War. It was the largest brick structure in the Gulf of Mexico.
Originating until 1821, when the third system of coastal fortifications was extended to protect Pensacola Bay and land-based coastal communities, it adopted a secondary purpose four years later, when the Legislature established a marina and depot. As part of the defense trio, it was designed to protect the western end of Santa Rosa Island in collaboration with bluff fortifications north of the canal and the eastern end of Perdido Key.
Construction began under the control of the US Army's engineering board in 1829, after the government completed 998 acres of land and a pentagonal structure, built of more than 21.5 million bricks and equipped with more than 200 cannons. years later.
"(Workers) used building materials, such as lime, water and sand, for mixing mortar; lumber for barbecuing and building quays, scaffolding and building retention; rods and fittings for use in dust magazines; (and) bricks for main work and flooring, "according to the National Park Service.
If it had 500 seats in the war, but could handle twice as much in an emergency, the five bastion structures, consisting of a single casemate level and a layer of barbecue, were capable of releasing a ring of fire to its sea-facing walls.
In this case, the only fight he ever experienced was during the Civil War.
Today, visitors continue to enter Fort Pickens through their original sally column, with the main entrance locked with heavy oak varieties. The plasterboard quarter served as both a residence and a hospital room. Arched casemates provided protected artillery positions and a base for second-level cannons. Three main chambers, each holding 1,000 pounds of weapons, were connected by a tunnel system. The dust magazines holding the fort's black power supply are lined with wood to keep them dry. They needed the boots of the paper-covered soldiers who entered their place to prevent the sparks from catching fire. In the generator room were the steam generators of 1903, which supplied electricity to headlights and other modern equipment.
The polka dots formed a dry support to protect the fort from land-based attacks. Rainwater was collected and stored in tanks for drinking. The tower bastion, facing the canal, provided protection for the harbor.